Tibetan History
                  Old Potala palace picture

Geographical formation of Tibet;

History of a country cannot be understood if knowing nothing about the general aspect of the country and of its inhabitants. So here the history of Tibet plateau is initiated with some of its general information, Tibet is local neighboring to mighty Himalayan ranges with average altitudes range between 4000m and 5000m, numbers of world highest peaks including Mt. Everest are located at its border, so that it deserve the name of roof of the world or third pole of the earth. Tibet represents about a quarter of the Chinese territory with 1/500th of its population. It is thus a country with extreme living conditions and a low inhabited density, due to its high altitude and cold weather, snow capped mountains can be seen throughout the plateau and most of the rivers in the Asian Subcontinent are originated from these snow melt.

The country occupies the site of the sea of Thetis (Tethys), which separated the old Asiatic and Australian continents millions of years ago. The displacement of the tectonic plates broke up the Australian plate in three parts, the northern which formed India was detached and in a rapid displacement towards the north raised the sediments of the sea of Thetis (Tethys) which currently forms the relief of the Tibetan plateau and the Himalayas. The central one formed the current Australian continent and the southern one formed the Antarctic continent. In the shock, basalts and hard stones formed the solid mass of the Himalayas, the sediments which form the Tibetan plateau are not consolidated and the relief is in constant erosion. Part of the country does not have a outlet with the sea water, thus creation of large considerable salt lakes and stocks of salt are used as a basis for foreign trade in Tibet. The largest rivers of India and China, take their headwaters there and these rivers all carry considerable amounts of alluvia that why water runs in reddish color, the silt contributed to the richness of the surrounding countries. It should be noted that all ancient civilizations were born in the same way indeed, whereas the banks of the rivers were not stabilized by human, rivers were covered each year with vast quantities of silt, thus the Tibetan civilizations took place at the bank of Brahmaputra or Yarlung Tsangpo river in Yarlung Valley.
 

                  Lhasa in 1940s    

Myth about Tibetan evolution;

Myth believe Tibetans were decent from a monkey and a rock-ogress, it was in a cave on the Gonpo Ri hill in Yarlong valley Tsedang(Southern Tibet), the sublime Avalokiteshvara, having conferred layperson's vows upon a magical monkey, dispatched him to meditate in the snowy realm of Tibet. There, beside a black rock, while he was devotedly contemplating loving-kindness, compassion, enlightenment-thought and the profound Dharma of emptiness, a rock-ogress, suffering on account of her karma, approached him, and before she departed, made manifold indications of her carnal desire for him. Later, disguised as a woman, the ogress said to the monkey, 'Let us be married!' But the monkey replied, 'As I am a disciple of the sublime Budda, it would contravene my vows to become your husband'. ' If you reject me, I will have to commit suicide because I am destined in my previous incarnation to be degraded into a devil. Then days later, I will become the wife of a devil and give birth to countless devil sons and grandsons. At that time, the plateau will be plunged into a world filled with devils and thousands of people will be killed”. Exclaimed by the rock-ogress as she threw herself at the monkey's feet.

So the monkey stuck in the dilemma he had to return to Mt. Pota to seek guidance from Mother Buddha. She said: “This is destiny and this is an auspicious sign. It is a deed of great kindness to marry her and reproduce offspring for the plateau. As a Buddha, you should not hesitate to conduct kind deeds. go back to marry the ogress.”

Then they got married and brought six baby monkeys into the world at first. They had different hobbies and different dispositions, in some history it said these six babies lead to the origin of six main tribes in Tibet, but some other said one reborn from each of the six classes of beings. The monkey-child reborn from among the denizens of the hell realms had a stern countenance and could withstand great hardships. The child from the realm of the hungry ghosts had loathsome features and an insatiable appetite. The one reborn from the animal realm was stupid and vulgar. The monkey-child from the human realm was endowed with increasing wisdom and sensitivity. The one from the realm of the semigods was aggressive and jealous, and the monkey-child from the realm of the gods was patient and virtuous.

and then later when the number of off springs multiplied by reproduction, they had eaten up all the natural fruits and troubled with food shortage, then again with the kind help from the mother Buddha they came to know cultivation of crops.

After some time, physical changes appeared by shortened the tails and gradually they could speak language. Finally they evolved into human, the ancestors of the Tibetan people.

This story of human evolution of Tibetan is very popular within the Tibetan people and it was written in some ancient scripture as well as on the murals of some old temples like Jokhang temple in Lhasa, this story also makes sense if you remember what old Charles Darwin said - that we've evolved from monkeys.


Tibet history;

Humans inhabited on the Tibetan Plateau at least twenty one thousand years ago. This population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic immigrants from northern China. However there is a "partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations". Some archaeological data suggests humans may have passed through Tibet at the time India was first inhabited, half a million years ago.

The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet. Zhang Zhung is considered to be the original home of the Bön religion. By the 1st century BCE, a neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung Valley, and the Yarlung king, Drigum Tsenpo, attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang Zhung by expelling the Zhang's Bön priests from Yarlung. He was assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region until it was annexed by Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century.

 

King Songtse Gampo

33rd King Songtsan Gampo

The first greatest Tibetan king and successor to Nam-ri Songtsen. He became king at the age of 13 when his father Nam ri Songtsen was assassinated. The tradition says that he was threatened by poison and had to escape from several plots. To maintain the unit of Tibet, he spent his life crisscrossing the country with his army.

Songtsen Gampo has three wives, the Tibetan wife called Mongsa Tricham and she gave birth to his only son Gungri Gongtsen. Later he married with Princess Brikuti, daughter of the king of Nepal Amçuvarman. Then the king sent an embassy to the Chinese Emperor Taitsong, the second emperor of the Tang dynasty, to claim a Chinese princess, but he met with a refusal. Tibetans attributed this refusal to the Tou-yu-houen. They invaded and occupied Tou-yu-houen's territory, and invaded China. The Emperor of China had to send three armies to control them. After 7 years of war, not being able to revoke the Tibetan armies, the Emperor proposed the Princess Wencheng. According to Chinese annals', the Tibetan king went to meet his bride and practiced the Chinese rites in Hong-yuan (Kansu). He was overwhelmed by the splendor and customs of the Chinese Empire. To express his thanks, he sent his prime minister to present a 7 foot high gold statue weighing 1100 ounces.

A catastrophic flood having destroyed all the villages in the Yarlung valley and having covered the fertile soils with sand, the valley lost its importance. The king then decided to settle in Lhasa and to build there a new palace known by the name of Potala, or red palace for his Chinese wife. Until the arrival of the 5th Dalai-lama all the kings resided here, but will always be called kings of Yarlung. Coincidence, this name of Potala was the name of the place, in the south of India, where a saint lived whose name was Avalokitesvara, that is God of compassion or the Dalaï lama, 10 centuries later, becomes the terrestrial representative.
 

The Nepalese and the Chinese Princesses were devoted Buddhists, zealously competing to build temples and monasteries. They were to be deified later as incarnations of the goddess Tara, green Tara for Nepalese and white Tara for Chinese. Each one had brought a statue of Buddha as part of their dowry. In the new town of Lhasa, a large temple was built, the Jokhang, to shelter the statue of the 12 years old Buddha in solid gold which had arrived with the Chinese Princess. On its arrival in Lhasa, within 200m of the objective, the carriage sank on marshy ground. Ramoche, another temple, was built on this site. After numerous adventures, the chinese statue joined Jokhang and later, the statue of the Nepalese Princess found its place in the temple of Ramoche. These temples still exist as are the statues.

With these marriages to foreign Princesses, exchanges will develop, ink, paper, tea will come from China, the jewels from India. A Chinese Embassy on its way to Maghada was wiped out while traveling through Bihar, in India. The king Songtsen Gampo then dispatched an army which destroyed the army of the king of Bihar, captured him and sent him in a cage to his friend the Emperor of China. The friendship with China ended with Songtsen Gampo. His successors take over the territory of the Tou-yu-houen bordering China and the Tibetan armies in the year 670 seized all Turkestan from the Chinese, before penetrating in Sichuan and Yunnan where they occupied 18 prefectures. Nepal was also conquered. A new period of peace occurred when Trisong Delsen married a Chinese princess Kin-tch' eng, but that peace did not last for long.
 

Apart from countless contributions for the development of Tibet kingdom and its culture, two most important ones that opened broader changes in the history are introduction of Buddhism from India and invention of Tibetan writing by referring Bali and Sanskrit.

The king Songtsen Gampo has sent numbers of ministers to India and neighboring countries to invent Tibetan writings by studying other languages, but many of them were died and some were had to return because of the climate difference, then finally a minister, Thon-mi Sambhota, in about AD 640 went to study Sanskrit in Kashmir. On his return he devises a new syllabic of 30 consonants and 4 vowels to suit his own entirely different Tibetan language. Thon-mi Sambhota even finds time to write eight treatises on Tibetan grammar, two of which survive.

 

Langdarma assassination and end of King’s dynasty;

But in 836, Ralpachen was strangled by his brother Langdarma under the pressure of Bön's traditionalists. Langdarma took his place and sent away the foreign monks. Few year later he was assassinated by a monk disguised as a dancer during a festival in 842. He was struck by a poisoned arrow which went through his neck and nailed him to his seat. This put an end to the so called king’s dynasty in Tibet, which is called Tsenpo Dhurab in Tibetan.


Tibet divided or second diffusion of Buddhism (842-1247)

After the assassination of the Langdarma, the central state collapsed and the whole society was in chaos, Yomten and Namde Osung were struggling for the legacy of their father Langdarma, then Yomden and his mother with their group attempted to assassinate Namde Osung and he had to flee to far-western Tibet. Buddhism was in a very critical situation after years of demolition and hostility from Bon religion, during that period of time, numbers of small states were rise from their regional power.

In 912, Namde Osung (one of the sons of Langdarma) annexed Purang and Guge, and established a kingdom with capital in Guge, at that time the Guge kingdom was the prominent kingdom all over the Tibet plateau, gradually the power of the kingdom reached further to Ladakh and became powerful in that region. Later in the end of 10th century, the religious king of the Guge kingdom-Yeshe O sponsored the great translator Rinchen Sangpo to construct Buddhist temples at Tsaparang and Toling, it was known as a phase for Buddhism renaissance in Tibet, and mid of 11th Century, the king had invited the Bengali scholar Atisha(982-1054) to Guge and revitalized Buddhism in Tibet, then Atisha visited central Tibet and with his chief disciple Dromtenpa Gyalwa Jomney established the Kadampa order and monasteries such as Reting near Lhasa.

As a result of civil wars among its regional rulers of Guge, Purang and Ladakh had deteriorate the kingdom and finally it was dominated by Sakye monastic regime in 1277.

 

Mongol invasion and Sakyapa order ruled Tibet (1235-1349)

During Genghis Khan’s reign, Mongol military power became very strong and it conquered almost tehwhole of Asia and eventually extended their rule into Europe as far as Hungary. They raided the Tibet several times and destroyed lots monasteries in the beginning.

Later the ruler of the Kokonor region(present day Qinghai province), Godan Khan(grandson of Genghis Khan) met Sakya scholar Pandita Gunga Gyaltsen and priest-patron relationship between the militarily powerful Mongol and spiritually rich Buddhist Tibet, and after a short time, Tibetan Buddhism became the state religion of Mongolians, to pay gratitude to his spiritual leader Sakya Pandita, Godan Khan sent troops in Tibet and defeated all local powers, then it was time that Sakaypa ruled Tibet for less than 100 years.

 

Rise of the Phagmodrupa (1350-1434)

Between 1346 and 1350, Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen toppled the Sakyapa order and founded the Phagmodrupa dynasty centered at Nedong in Yarlung, during his time he had introduce lots of new systems in the administration and enacted rules based on which founded by King Songtsen Gampo in 7th century. In the following 80 years, various changes in the Tibetan Buddhist was also undertaken by the appearance of Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), he founded the Gelugpa sect(also known as Yellow Hats) and built important Buddhist teaching centers like Ganden monastery close to Lhasa, later his disciples deeply follow his teachings and founded prominent monastic colleges like Drepung monastery and Sera monastery in the outskirt of Lhasa.

 

Ringpung rule (1478-1565);

The rule of Phagmodrupa was succed by the Ringpung prince, the Ringpung prince was well known from the reign of 5th king of the Phagmodrupa administration Drakpa Gyeltsen(1409-1434), later the Phagmodrupa king was defeated by Ringpung king and it became the most powerful ruler in Tibet. At that time the king of the Ringpung had a very close connection with Zhamarpa which is a branch of the Karma Kargy school.

 

Tsanpa ruler (1565-1642);

In 1565, the power of the Ringpung was took over by the prince of Samdrutse, which is the modern Shigatse, and ruled Tibet for less than two decades.

 

Beginnings of the Dalai Lama lineage

Great Fifth Dalai Lama

In 1578, Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols gave Sonam Gyatso, a high lama of the Gelugpa school, the name Dalai Lama; Dalai being the Mongolian translation of the Tibetan name Gyatso, or "Ocean" and that meant to “ Ocean of Wisdom”.

 

The third head lama of the Gelug school, Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588) converted the Mongol leader Altan Khan to Buddhism. It is commonly believed that Altan Khan originated the title Dalai Lama, meaning "Ocean of Wisdom," in 1578 to give to Sonam Gyatso. Others point out that since gyatso is Tibetan for "ocean," the title "Dalai Lama" simply might have been a Mongol translation of Sonam Gyatso's name -- Lama Gyatso.

 

In any event, "Dalai Lama" became the title of the highest-ranking lama of the Gelug school. Since Sonam Gyatso was the third lama in that lineage, he became the 3rd Dalai Lama. The first two Dalai Lamas received the title posthumously.

 

It was the 5th Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682), who first became ruler of all Tibet. The "Great Fifth" formed a military alliance with the Mongol leader Gushri Khan. When two other Mongol chiefs and the ruler of Kang, an ancient kingdom of central Asia, invaded Tibet, Gushri Khan routed them and declared himself king of Tibet. In 1642, Gushri Khan recognized the 5th Dalai Lama as the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet.

 

The succeeding Dalai Lamas and their regents remained the chief administrators of Tibet until the invasion of Tibet by China in 1950 and the exile of the 14th Dalai Lama in 1959.

 

The traditional list of the ancient Tibetan rulers consists of 42 names. The first 26 rulers may belong to the realm of legend, as there is insufficient evidence of their existence, but modern scholars believe that the kings from no. 27 to no. 32 were historical.The rulers from no. 33 to no. 42 are well documented in many reliable Tibetan, Chinese and foreign sources.

A unified Tibetan state did not exist before the times of the kings number 31, 32, and 33. The earlier rulers, known as the Yarlung dynasty, were probably just local chiefs in the Yarlung Valley area, certainly not emperors of Tibet.

Traditional Tibetan titles for the emperor include tsenpo ("Emperor") and lhase ("Divine Son").

In the list the common transliteration is given first, the academic one in brackets.
 

Number

Name of the kings

Reign

1

Nyatri Tsenpo

 

2

Mutri Tsenpo

 

3

Dingtri Tsenpo

 

4

Sotri Tsenpo

 

5

Mertri Tsenpo

 

6

Dakrri Tsenpo

 

7

Siptri Tsenpo

 

8

Drigum Tsenpo

 

9

Chatri Tsenpo

 

10

Esho Lek

 

11

Desho Lek

 

12

Tisho Lek

 

13

Guru Lek

 

14

Trongzhi Lek

 

15

Isho Lek

 

16

Zanam Zindé

 

17

Detrul Namshungtsen

 

18

Senöl Namdé

 

19

Senöl Podé

 

20

Senöl Nam

 

21

Senöl Po

 

22

Degyel Po

 

23

Detrin Tsen

 

24

Tori Longtsen

 

25

Tritsen Nam

 

26

Tridra Pungtsen

 

27

Tritog Jetsen

 

28

Lha Thothori Nyantsen

 

29

Trinyen Zungtsen

 

30

Drongnyen Deu

 

31

Tagbu Nyasig

579-619

32

Namri Songtsen

 ?-629

33

Songtsen Gampo

60?-649

34

Gungsrong Gungtsen

638-655?

35

Mangsong Mangtsen

653-676

36

Tridu Songtsen

676-704

37

Me Agtsom

680-743

38

Trisong Detsen

755-797

39

Muné Tsenpo

797-799?

40

Sadnalegs

c. 800 or 804-815?

41

Ralpacan

815-836

42

Langdarma

836-842

 

 


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